ptolemy cleopatra

Cleopatra was born in Alexandria in 69 BC to Ptolemy XII Auletes, who ruled Egypt from 80 to 58 BC and then again from 55 to 51 BC. "[35] Walker, Roller and Joann Fletcher observe the similarity of this Pompeiian painting with the face preserved in the "Vatican Cleopatra", the damage on the left cheek of the sculpture possibly from the arm of a cupid that may have been torn off. The race of Cleopatra VII, the last active Hellenistic ruler of the Macedonian Greek Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, has caused some debate in non-scholarly circles.

[474] In preparation for the film starring Taylor as Cleopatra, women's magazines of the early 1960s advertised how to use makeup, clothes, jewelry, and hairstyles to achieve the "Egyptian" look similar to the queens Cleopatra and Nefertiti. [277][263] A subscript in a different handwriting at the bottom of the papyrus reads "make it happen"[277][263] or "so be it"[264] (Ancient Greek: γινέσθωι, romanized: ginésthōi);[note 53] this is likely the autograph of the queen, as it was Ptolemaic practice to countersign documents to avoid forgery.

Cleopatra VII ruled ancient Egypt as co-regent (first with her two younger brothers and then with her son) for almost three decades. She further notes that if she had any children by Ptolemy, they never became king (all Ptolemaic kings were regarded as fully legitimate save for Ptolemy XII Auletes). [324] When a spy informed her that Octavian planned to move her and her children to Rome in three days, she prepared for suicide as she had no intentions of being paraded in a Roman triumph like her sister Arsinoe IV. [420][421][422][note 67] Both the Berlin Cleopatra and Vatican Cleopatra have royal diadems, similar facial features, and perhaps once resembled the face of her bronze statue housed in the Temple of Venus Genetrix. Peeters Publishers. [56] Her hair and facial features are similar to those in the sculpted Berlin and Vatican portraits as well as her coinage. Their daughter, Cleopatra Selene, became an important ruler in her own right, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cleopatra&oldid=984303694, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 October 2020, at 11:22.

[262][263] It concerns certain tax exemptions in Egypt granted to either Quintus Caecillius or Publius Canidius Crassus,[note 52] a former Roman consul and Antony's confidant who would command his land forces at Actium.

Cleo also funded Mark Antony’s habit of trying, and failing, to invade other countries. Whether it was her lineage as a descendant of Alexander the Great, or her personal qualities, Cleopatra and Caesar become lovers in short order. Not long after their rule began, Ptolemy XIII’s advisors acted against her and she fled to Syria in 49BC. [245], In 36 BC, Cleopatra accompanied Antony to the Euphrates in his journey toward invading the Parthian Empire. [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Michael Grant states that Cleopatra probably had not a drop of Egyptian blood and that she "would have described herself as Greek. Read another story from us: How to Make Someone Desire You? [403][397] In his Kleopatra und die Caesaren (2006), Bernard Andreae [de] contends that this basalt statue, like other idealized Egyptian portraits of the queen, does not contain realistic facial features and hence adds little to the knowledge of her appearance. [358][425][232][note 47] A possible Parian-marble sculpture of Cleopatra wearing a vulture headdress in Egyptian style is located at the Capitoline Museums. [277] On 1 February 32 BC Sosius gave a fiery speech condemning Octavian, now a private citizen without public office, and introduced pieces of legislation against him.

[2][3] For example, the article "Was Cleopatra Black?" [27][28] However, with opposition building at the royal court against the idea of a sole reigning female monarch, Berenice III accepted joint rule and marriage with her cousin and stepson Ptolemy XI Alexander II, an arrangement made by the Roman dictator Sulla.

[151][152][153] Cleopatra was conspicuously absent from these events and resided in the palace, most likely because she had been pregnant with Caesar's child since September 48 BC. [250], As Antony prepared for another Parthian expedition in 35 BC, this time aimed at their ally Armenia, Octavia traveled to Athens with 2,000 troops in alleged support of Antony, but most likely in a scheme devised by Octavian to embarrass him for his military losses. Antony attempted to maintain Rome’s alliance with Egypt by bombarding Cleo with letters and eventually turning up on her doorstep. [195][199], By the end of 42 BC, Octavian had gained control over much of the western half of the Roman Republic and Antony the eastern half, with Lepidus largely marginalized.

[319][303], Octavian entered Alexandria, occupied the palace, and seized Cleopatra's three youngest children. [56][57] In it she wears a royal diadem, red or reddish-brown hair pulled back into a bun,[note 74] pearl-studded hairpins,[439] and earrings with ball-shaped pendants, the white skin of her face and neck set against a stark black background. Historians and Egyptologists agree that Cleopatra played an important role in the history of Egypt and how it shaped out even after her death. [449], In modern times Cleopatra has become an icon of popular culture,[373] a reputation shaped by theatrical representations dating back to the Renaissance as well as paintings and films. He distinguished himself by preventing Ptolemy XII from massacring the inhabitants of Pelousion, and for rescuing the body of Archelaos, the husband of Berenice IV, after he was killed in battle, ensuring him a proper royal burial. But she still needed a male co-ruler so she, surprise, married another brother who was called, surprise surprise, Ptolemy. Retrieved 2017-06-09, This page was last edited on 18 October 2020, at 23:22. [395][16][396][note 63], Cleopatra was depicted in various ancient works of art, in the Egyptian as well as Hellenistic-Greek and Roman styles. In contrast, Cleopatra could speak multiple languages by adulthood and was the first Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language. [151] However, Antony, an officer of his, helped to secure Caesar's appointment as dictator lasting for a year, until October 47 BC, providing Caesar with the legal authority to settle the dynastic dispute in Egypt. [221][222] It has been suggested that Fulvia wanted to cleave Antony away from Cleopatra, but the conflict emerged in Italy even before Cleopatra's meeting with Antony at Tarsos. [468][469] Cleopatra also became appreciated outside the Western world and Middle East, as the Qing-dynasty Chinese scholar Yan Fu wrote an extensive biography of her. [453] His depiction of Cleopatra and Antony, her shining knight engaged in courtly love, has been interpreted in modern times as being either playful or misogynistic satire. Rogers called "World's Great Men of Color. "[404], Another painting from Pompeii, dated to the early 1st century AD and located in the House of Giuseppe II, contains a possible depiction of Cleopatra with her son Caesarion, both wearing royal diadems while she reclines and consumes poison in an act of suicide. [204][205][note 45] Cleopatra managed to clear her name as a supposed supporter of Cassius, arguing she had really attempted to help Dolabella in Syria, and convinced Antony to have her exiled sister, Arsinoe IV, executed at Ephesus. [392] For instance, the historian Ronald Syme asserted that she was of little importance to Caesar and that the propaganda of Octavian magnified her importance to an excessive degree. [330][331][303] Plutarch relates this tale, but then suggests an implement (κνῆστις, knêstis, lit. www.tyndalehouse.com.

She notes Rogers's inability to correctly number Cleopatra's family (for example, naming Cleopatra's brother Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator as her father, who was actually Ptolemy XII Auletes, and naming Ptolemy XI Alexander II as Ptolemy XII's father when he was in fact Ptolemy IX Soter), using as his main sources a misinterpretation of William Shakespeare's "Antony and Cleopatra" (written over 1,500 years after Cleopatra's death) and falsely citing Encyclopedia Britannica (when in fact it did not then or ever claim Cleopatra was black), and that his presumption Cleopatra's paternal grandmother was a black African slave is "based in the more recent past.

[363][238] Cleopatra Selene II imported many important scholars, artists, and advisers from her mother's royal court in Alexandria to serve her in Caesarea, now permeated in Hellenistic Greek culture. Octavian engaged in a war of propaganda, forced Antony's allies in the Roman Senate to flee Rome in 32 BC, and declared war on Cleopatra.

This stele dates to the reign of Cleopatra I Syra's husband, Ptolemaic King Ptolemy V Ephiphanes, who reigned from 204-181 BC. was published in Ebony magazine in 2012,[4] and an article about Afrocentrism from the St. Louis Post-Dispatch mentions the question, too. [9][10] Cleopatra's adopted title Theā́ Philopátōra (Θεᾱ́ Φιλοπάτωρα) means "goddess who loves her father. [218] Cleopatra provided Antony with 200 ships for his campaign and as payment for her newly acquired territories. [458] Early prints depicting Cleopatra include designs by the Renaissance artists Raphael and Michelangelo, as well as 15th-century woodcuts in illustrated editions of Boccaccio's works. [488][35] The confused accounts in ancient primary sources have also led scholars to number Ptolemy XII's wife as either Cleopatra V or Cleopatra VI; the latter may have actually been a daughter of Ptolemy XII, and some use her as an indication that Cleopatra V had died in 69 BC rather than reappearing as a co-ruler with Berenice IV in 58 BC (during Ptolemy XII's exile in Rome). [92][93] Inheriting her father's debts, Cleopatra also owed the Roman Republic 17.5 million drachmas.

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