bike wheel rim

On the other hand, the reduced number of spokes results in a larger section of the rim being unsupported, necessitating stronger and often heavier rims.
[4] Freeride and downhill are available with both 142 and 150 mm spacing.[5]. The rim is connected to the hub by several spokes under tension.
[52], A truing stand or a dishing gauge, can be used to measure the position of the rim relative to the hub. Semi-aerodynamic[clarification needed] and aerodynamic wheelsets are characterized by greater rim depth, which is the radial distance between the outermost and the innermost surfaces of the rim; a triangular or pyramidal cross-section; and by fewer numbers of spokes, or no spokes at all—with blades molded of composite material supporting the rim. On traditionally spoked wheels, flange spacing affects the lateral stiffness of the wheel, with wider being stiffer, and flange diameter affects the torsional stiffness of the wheel and the number of spoke holes that the hub can accept, with larger diameter being stiffer and accepting more holes. See Bicycle performance for more detail. Smaller wheel sizes are also found on folding bicycles to minimise the folded size. Conventionally laced 36- or 32-spoke wheels are most commonly built as a cross-3 or a cross-2, however other cross-numbers are also possible. The side of the wheel with less dish has slightly shorter but significantly higher-tensioned spokes than the side with more dish. Wheels that are not required to transfer any significant amount of torque from the hub to the rim are often laced radially. The ISO 5775-2 standard defines designations for bicycle rims. The first bicycle wheels followed the traditions of carriage building: a wooden hub, a fixed steel axle (the bearings were located in the fork ends), wooden spokes and a shrink fitted iron tire. [27] Here, the spokes leave the hub at perpendicular to the axle and go straight to the rim, without crossing any other spokes - e.g., "cross-0".

Where braking is concerned, the older-style caliper devices that contact the rims to apply braking force are not affected by lacing patterns in this way because braking forces are transferred from the calipers directly to the rim, then to the tires and then to the roadway. There are a number of variables that determine rolling resistance: tire tread, width, diameter, tire construction, tube type (if applicable), and pressure are all important. Spoke tensiometers are tools which measure the tension in a spoke.

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